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Irish and mod. Gaelic curach , boat , a species of ancient British fishing-boat which is still extensively used on the Severn and other rivers of Wales, notably on the Towy and Teifi. It is a light boat, oval in shape, and formed of canvas stretched on a framework of split and interwoven rods, and well-coated with tar and pitch to render it water-tight. According to early writers the framework was covered with horse or bullock hide corium.

Coracle-fishing is performed by two men, each seated in his coracle and with one hand holding the net while with the other he plies his paddle. When a fish is caught, each hauls up his end of the net until the two coracles are brought to touch and the fish is then secured. The coracle forms a unique link between the modern life of Wales and its remote past; for this primitive type of boat was in existence amongst the Britons at the time of the invasion of Julius Caesar, who has left a description of it, and even employed it in his Spanish campaign.

He then settled in Paris, where he lived until his death on the 10th of April Inspired by the ideals of the French Revolution, he devoted himself to furthering the cause of Greek independence both among the Greeks themselves and by awakening the interest of the chief European Powers against the Turkish rule. His great object was to rouse the enthusiasm of the Greeks for the idea that they were the true descendants of the ancient Hellenes by teaching them to regard as their own inheritance the great works of antiquity.

He sought to purify the ordinary written language by eliminating the more obvious barbarisms, and by enriching it with classical words and others invented in strict accordance with classical tradition see further Greek Language : modern. Under his influence, though the common patois was practically untouched, the language of literature and intellectual intercourse was made to approximate to the pure Attic of the 5th and 4th centuries B.

His literary remains have been edited by Mamoukas and Damalas ; collections of letters written from Paris at the time of the French Revolution have been published in English, by P. His autobiography appeared at Paris ; Athens, , and his life has been written by D. Thereianos ; see also A. CORAL, the hard skeletons of various marine organisms. It is chiefly carbonate of lime, and is secreted from sea-water and deposited in the tissues of Anthozoan polyps, the principal source of the coral-reefs of the world see Anthozoa , of Hydroids see Hydromedusae , less important in modern reef-building, but extremely abundant in Palaeozoic times, and of certain Algae.

Beyond their general utility and value as sources of lime, few of the corals present any special feature of industrial importance, excepting the red or precious coral Corallium rubrum of the Mediterranean Sea.

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It, however, is and has been from remote times very highly prized for jewelry, personal ornamentation and decorative purposes generally. About the beginning of the Christian era a great trade was carried on in coral between the Mediterranean and India, where it was highly esteemed as a substance endowed with mysterious sacred properties. It is remarked by Pliny that, previous to the existence of the Indian demand, the Gauls were in the habit of using it for the ornamentation of their weapons of war and helmets; but in his day, so great was the Eastern demand, that it was very rarely seen even in the regions which produced it.

A belief in its potency as a charm continued to be entertained throughout medieval times; and even to the present day in Italy it is worn as a preservative from the evil eye, and by females as a cure for sterility. The precious coral is found widespread on the borders and around the islands of the Mediterranean Sea. It ranges in depth from shallow water 25 to 50 ft. The most important fisheries extend along the coasts of Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco; but red coral is also obtained in the vicinity of Naples, near Leghorn and Genoa, and on the coasts of Sardinia, Corsica, Catalonia and Provence.

It occurs also in the Atlantic off the north-west of Africa, and recently it has been dredged in deep water off the west of Ireland. Allied species of small commercial value have been obtained off Mauritius and near Japan. The black coral Antipathes abies , formerly abundant in the Persian Gulf, and for which India is the chief market, has a wide distribution and grows to a considerable height and thickness in the tropical waters of the Great Barrier Reef of Australia.

From the middle ages downwards the securing of the right to the coral fisheries on the African coasts was an object of considerable rivalry among the Mediterranean communities of Europe. Previous to the 16th century they were controlled by the Italian republics. For a short period the Tunisian fisheries were secured by Charles V. For a short period about the British government controlled the fisheries, and now they are again in the hands of the French authorities.

Previous to the French Revolution much of the coral trade centred in Marseilles; but since that period, both the procuring of the raw material and the working of it up into the various forms in which it is used have become peculiarly Italian industries, centring largely in Naples, Rome and Genoa. On the Algerian coast, however, boats not flying the French flag have to pay heavy dues for the right to fish, and in the early years of the 20th century the once flourishing fisheries at La Calle were almost entirely neglected.

Two classes of boats engage in the pursuit—a large size of from 12 to 14 tons, manned by ten or twelve hands, and a small size of 3 or 4 tons, with a crew of five or six. The Algerian reefs are divided into ten portions, of which only one is fished annually—ten years being considered sufficient for the proper growth of the coral. The range of value of the various qualities of coral, according to colour and size, is exceedingly wide, and notwithstanding the steady Oriental demand its price is considerably affected by the fluctuations of fashion.

In China large spheres of good coloured coral command high prices, being in great requisition for the button of office worn by the mandarins. It also finds a ready market throughout India and in Central Asia; and with the negroes of Central Africa and of America it is a favourite ornamental substance. Corallien , in geology, the name of one of the divisions of the Jurassic rocks.

In England the Corallian strata are usually divided into an upper series, characterized by the ammonite Perisphinctes plicatilis , and a lower series with Aspidoceras perarmatus as the zonal fossil. When well developed these beds are seen to lie above the Oxford Clay and below the Kimeridge Clay; but it will save a good deal of confusion if it is recognized that the Corallian rocks of England are nothing more than a variable, local lithological phase of the two clays which come respectively above and below them. This caution is particularly necessary when any attempt is being made to co-ordinate the English with the continental Corallian.

The Corallian rocks are nowhere better displayed than in the cliffs at Weymouth. Here Messrs Blake and Huddleston recognized the following beds:—. In Dorsetshire the Corallian rocks are ft. In Yorkshire, however, the hard rocky beds come on again in full force. They appear once more at Brora in Sutherlandshire. Corallian strata have been proved by boring in Sussex ft. Here and there in this district hard calcareous inconstant beds appear, such as the Elsworth rock, St Ives rock and Boxworth rock. In Yorkshire the Corallian rocks differ in many respects from their southern equivalents.

They are subdivided as follows:—. These rocks play an important part in the formation of the Vale of Pickering, and the Hambleton and Howardian Hills; they are well exposed in Gristhorpe Bay. Trigonias are very numerous in certain beds T. Astarte ovata , Lucina aliena and other pelecypods are also abundant. The echinoderms Echinobrissus scutatus and Cidaris florigemma are characteristic of these beds. Rocks of the same age as the English Corallian are widely spread over Europe, but owing to the absence of clearly-marked stratigraphical and palaeontological boundaries, the nomenclature has become greatly involved, and there is now a tendency amongst continental geologists to omit the term Corallian altogether.

According to A. For the table showing the relative position of these stages see the article Jurassic. Many species of coral q. These conditions of temperature are found in a belt of ocean which may roughly be indicated as lying between the 28th N. Within these limits there are numerous reefs and islands formed of coral intermixed with the calcareous skeletons of other animals, and their formation has long been a matter of dispute among naturalists and geologists.

Coral formations may be classed as fringing or shore reefs, barrier reefs and atolls. Fringing reefs are platforms of coral rock extending no great distance from the shores of a continent or island. The seaward edge of the platform is usually somewhat higher than the inner part, and is often awash at low water. It is intersected by numerous creeks and channels, especially opposite those places where streams of fresh water flow down from the land, and there is usually a channel deep enough to be navigable by small boats between the edge of the reef and the land.

The outer wall of the reef is rather steep, but descends into a comparatively shallow sea. Since corals are killed by fresh water or by deposition of mud or sand, it is obvious that the outer edge of the reef is the region of most active coral growth, and the boat channel and the passages leading into it from the open sea have been formed by the suppression of coral growth by one of the above-mentioned causes, assisted by the scour of the tides and the solvent action of sea-water. Barrier reefs may be regarded as fringing reefs on a large scale.

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The great Australian barrier reef extends for no less a distance than m. The outer edge of a barrier reef is much farther from the shore than that of a fringing reef, and the channel between it and the land is much deeper. Opposite Cape York the seaward edge of the great Australian barrier reef is nearly 90 m. As is the case in a fringing reef, the outer edge of a barrier reef is in many places awash at low tides, and masses of dead coral and sand may be piled up on it by the action of the waves, so that islets are formed which in time are covered with vegetation.

These islets may coalesce and form a strip of dry land lying some hundred yards or less from the extreme outer edge of the reef, and separated by a wide channel from the mainland. Where the barrier reef is not far from the land there are always gaps in it opposite the mouths of rivers or considerable streams. The outer wall of a barrier reef is steep, and frequently, though not always, descends abruptly into great depths. In many cases in the Pacific Ocean a barrier reef surrounds one or more island peaks, and the strips of land on the edge of the reef may encircle the peaks with a nearly complete ring.

An atoll is a ring-shaped reef, either awash at low tide or surmounted by several islets, or more rarely by a complete strip of dry land surrounding a central lagoon. The outer wall of an atoll generally descends with a very steep but irregular slope to a depth of fathoms or more, but the lagoon is seldom more than 20 fathoms deep, and may be much less. Frequently, especially to the leeward side of an atoll, there may be one or more navigable passages leading from the lagoon to the open sea. Though corals flourish everywhere under suitable conditions in tropical seas, coral reefs and atolls are by no means universal in the torrid zone.

The Atlantic Ocean is remarkably free from coral formations, though there are numerous reefs in the West Indian islands, off the south coast of Florida, and on the coast of Brazil. In the Indian Ocean, the Laccadive and Maldive islands are large groups of atolls off the west and south-west of India. Still farther south is the Chagos group of atolls, and there are numerous reefs off the north coast of Madagascar, at Mauritius, Bourbon and the Seychelles. Diagram showing the formation of an atoll during subsidence. After C. The lower part of the figure represents a barrier reef surrounding a central peak.

A, A, outer edges of the barrier reef at the sea-level; the coco-nut trees indicate dry land formed on the edges of the reef. The remarkable characters of barrier reefs and atolls, their isolated position in the midst of the great oceans the seemingly unfathomable depths from which they rise their peaceful and shallow lagoons and inner channels, their narrow strips of land covered with coco-nut palms and other vegetation, and rising but a few feet above the level of the ocean, naturally attracted the attention of the earlier navigators, who formed sundry speculations as to their origin.

The poet-naturalist, A. He pointed out that the larger and more massive species of corals flourish best on the outer sides of a reef, whilst the more interior corals are killed or stunted in growth by the accumulation of coral and other debris. Thus the outer edge of a submerged reef is the first to reach the surface, and a ring of land being formed by materials piled up by the waves, an atoll with a central lagoon is produced. Darwin to reject his views and bring forward an explanation which may be called the theory of subsidence. Starting from the well-known premise that reef-building species of corals do not flourish in a greater depth of water than 20 fathoms, Darwin argued that all coral islands must have a rocky base, and that it was inconceivable that, in such large tracts of sea as occur in the Pacific and Indian oceans, there should be a vast number of submarine peaks or banks all rising to within 20 or 30 fathoms of the surface and none emerging above it.

But on the supposition that the atolls and encircling reefs were formed round land which was undergoing a slow movement of subsidence, their structure could easily be explained. Take the case of an island consisting of a single high peak. At first the coral growth would form a fringing reef clinging to its shores. As the island slowly subsided into the ocean the upward growth of coral would keep the outer rim of the reef level with or within a few fathoms of the surface, so that, as subsidence proceeded, the distance between the outer rim of the reef and the sinking land would continually increase, with the result that a barrier-reef would be formed separated by a wide channel from the central peak.

As corals and other organisms with calcareous skeletons live in the channel, their remains, as well as the accumulation of coral and other debris thrown over the outer edge of the reef, would maintain the channel at a shallower depth than that of the ocean outside. Finally, if the subsidence continued, the central peak would disappear beneath the surface, and an atoll would be left consisting of a raised margin of reef surrounding a central lagoon, and any pause during the movement of subsidence would result in the formation of raised islets or a strip of dry land along the margin of the reef.

Dana, who had made extensive observations among the Pacific coral reefs between and , but it was not long before it was attacked by other observers. In Louis Agassiz produced evidence to show that the reefs off the south coast of Florida were not formed during subsidence, and in Karl Semper showed that in the Pelew islands there is abundant evidence of recent upheaval in a region where both atolls and barrier-reefs exist. Latterly, many instances of recently upraised coral formations have been described by H.

Guppy, J. Gardiner and others, and Alexander Agassiz and Sir J. Murray have brought forward a mass of evidence tending to shake the subsidence theory to its foundations. For although they may at first be too far below the surface for reef-building corals, they afford a habitat for numerous echinoderms, molluscs, crustacea and deep-sea corals, whose skeletons accumulate on their summits, and they further receive a constant rain of the calcareous and silicious skeletons of minute organisms which teem in the waters above.

By these agencies the banks are gradually raised to the lowest depth at which reef-building corals can flourish, and once these establish themselves they will grow more rapidly on the periphery of the bank, because they are more favourably situated as regards food-supply. Thus the reef will rise to the surface as an atoll, and the nearer it approaches the surface the more will the corals on the exterior faces be favoured, and the more will those in the centre of the reef decrease, for experiment has shown that the minute pelagic organisms on which corals feed are far less abundant in a lagoon than in the sea outside.

Eventually, as the margin of the reef rises to the surface and material is accumulated upon it to form islets or continuous land, the coral growth in the lagoon will be feeble, and the solvent action of sea-water and the scour of the tide will tend to deepen the lagoon. Thus the considerable depth of some lagoons, amounting to 40 or 50 fathoms, may be accounted for. One of the islands, Santa Anna, has the form of an upraised atoll, with a mass of coral limestone 80 ft. Agassiz, in a number of important researches on the Florida reefs, the Bahamas, the Bermudas, the Fiji islands and the Great Barrier Reef of Australia, has further shown that many of the peculiar features of these coral formations cannot be explained on the theory of subsidence, but are rather attributable to the natural growth of corals on banks formed by prevailing currents, or on extensive shore platforms or submarine flats formed by the erosion of pre-existing land surfaces.

In face of this accumulated evidence, it must be admitted that the subsidence theory of Darwin is inapplicable to a large number of coral reefs and islands, but it is hardly possible to assert, as Murray does, that no atolls or barrier reefs have ever been developed after the manner indicated by Darwin. The most recent research on the structure of coral reefs has also been the most thorough and most convincing. An expedition sent out by the Royal Society of London started in for the island of Funafuti, a typical atoll of the Ellice group in the Pacific Ocean, with the purpose of making a deep boring to test this question.

The first attempt was not successful, for at a depth of ft. But a second attempt, under the management of Professor Edgeworth David of Sydney, proved a complete success. With improved apparatus, the boring was carried down to a depth of ft. The boring proves the existence of a mass of pure limestone of organic origin to the depth of ft.

The organic remains found in the core brought up by the drill consist of corals, foraminifera, calcareous algae and other organisms. A boring was also made from the deck of a ship into the floor of the lagoon, which shows that under ft. At greater depths, down to ft. These are shallow-water corals, and their existence at a depth of nearly 46 fathoms, buried beneath a mass of Halimeda and foraminifera, is clear evidence of recent subsidence. Halimeda grows abundantly over the floor of the lagoon of Funafuti, and has been observed in many other lagoons.

The writer collected a quantity of it in the lagoon of Diego Garcia in the Chagos group. The boring demonstrates that the lagoon of Funafuti has been filled up to an extent of at least ft. In the present state of our knowledge it seems reasonable to conclude that coral reefs are formed wherever the conditions suitable for growth exist, whether in areas of subsidence, elevation or rest.

A considerable number of reefs, at all events, have not been formed in areas of subsidence, and of these the Florida reefs, the Bermudas, the Solomon islands, and possibly the Great Barrier Reef of Australia are examples. Funafuti would appear to have been formed in an area of subsidence, and it is quite probable that the large groups of low-lying islands in the Pacific and Indian oceans have been formed under the same conditions.

At the same time, it must be remembered that the atoll or barrier reef shape is not necessarily evidence of formation during subsidence, for the observations of Karl Semper, A. Agassiz, and Guppy are sufficient to prove that these forms of reefs may be produced by the natural growth of coral, modified by the action of waves and currents in regions in which subsidence has certainly not taken place. See A. Agassiz, many publications in the Mem. Harvard, ; J.

Dana, Corals and Coral Islands ; 2nd ed. Gardiner, Nature , lxix. He began life as a seaman, and rose to the position of merchant captain. He settled at Taunton, Massachusetts, for several years engaging there in farming and boat-building, and in returned to England. His acquaintance with the destitute East End of London, and the miserable condition of the children there, inspired him with the idea of providing a refuge for such of them as had no legal protector; and after seventeen years of unwearied exertion, he obtained in a royal charter authorizing the establishment of his hospital for foundling infants see Foundling Hospitals.

It was opened in Hatton Garden, on the 17th of October , with twenty inmates. Children were brought, however, in such numbers, and so few not one-third, it is said survived infancy, that the grant was stopped, and the charity, which had been removed to Guilford Street, was from that time only administered under careful restrictions. He died on the 29th of March It is not a horn, but bears the same relation to the oboe as the basset horn does to the clarinet. The cor anglais differs slightly in construction from the oboe; the conical bore of the wooden tube is wider and slightly longer, and there is a larger globular bell and a bent metal crook to which the double reed mouthpiece is attached.

The fingering and method of producing the sound are so similar in both instruments that the player of the one can in a short time master the other, but as the cor anglais is pitched a fifth lower, the music must be transposed for it into a key a fifth higher than the real sounds produced. The compass of the cor anglais extends over two octaves and a fifth:. The true quality of the cor anglais is penetrating like that of the oboe, but mellower and more melancholy.

The cor anglais is the alto Pommer q. It is not known exactly when the change took place, but it was probably during the 17th century, after the Schalmey or Shawm had been transformed into the oboe. In a 17th century MS. The tubes of all the members of the hautbois family are straight in this drawing. Before the French hoboy, made in four parts and having two keys, was known in England. The origin of the name of the instrument is also a matter of conjecture. In that case the name, but not necessarily the instrument, probably originated in France early in the 18th century, for Gluck scored for two cors anglais in his Italian version of Alceste played in Vienna in When a French version of this opera was given in Paris two years later, the cor anglais, not being known or available there, was replaced by oboes.

This, however, proves only that the name was not familiar in France, where the oboe of the same pitch was called haute-contre de hautbois. The bending of the tube and the development of the cor anglais as solo instrument originated in Germany, unless the oboe da caccia was identical with the cor anglais, in which case Italy would be the country of origin. Thomas Stanesby, junior, made an oboe da caccia in of straight pattern in four pieces, having a bent metal crook for the insertion of the reed and two saddle keys; but the bell was like the bell of the oboe, not globular like that of the cor anglais, a form to which the veiled quality of its timbre is due.

It is interesting in this connexion to recall some experiments in bending the cor anglais, which do not appear to have led to any practical result. A French broadside c. The other hypothesis is that when the cor anglais was given a bend in order to facilitate the handling, the name was adopted to mark its resemblance to a kind of hunting-horn said to be in use in England at the time. This suggestion does not seem to be a happy one; for if the reference be to the crescent-shaped horn, that instrument was in use in all countries at various periods before the 17th century, while if it be to the angular form, then a reproduction of such a horn should be forthcoming to support the statement.

The idea of bending the instrument is attributed to Giovanni or Giuseppe Ferlendis of Bergamo, 3 brothers and virtuosi on the oboe. One of these had settled in Salzburg, and both were equally renowned as performers on the English horn. In this case we might expect the name to have been given in Italian, corno inglese ; yet Gluck in his Italian edition used the French name already in , when Giuseppe was but twelve years old.

We must await some more conclusive explanation, but we may suppose that the new name was bestowed when the instrument assumed a form entirely new to the family of hautbois or oboes. The experiment of bending the cor anglais did not prove satisfactory, for the tube instead of being bored had to be cut out of two pieces of wood which were then glued together and covered with leather.

Even the most skilful craftsman did not succeed in making the inside of the tube quite smooth; the roughness of the wood was detrimental to the tone and gave the cor anglais a veiled, somewhat hoarse quality, and makers before long reverted to the direct or vertical form. Deeds exist creating charges for four hautbois and musettes de Poitou in the hand of King John, middle of 14th century, see p. It is situated in the centre of an agricultural district. It contains no buildings of great interest, but is a clean and well-kept town.

Such a votive offering lay under a curse if it were diverted to ordinary purposes, like the spoil of Jericho which Achan appropriated Josh.

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The word is found in Mark vii. The Jewish scribes thus fenced the law of vows with a traditional interpretation which made men break the most binding injunctions of the Mosaic Law, in this case the fifth commandment. A totally different explanation of the passage is put forward by J. Hart in The Jewish Quarterly Review for July , the gist of which is that Jesus commends the Pharisees for insisting that when a man has vowed a vow to God he should pay it even though his parents should suffer. He was soon in the service of Ranulf Flambard, bishop of Durham; then, having entered the order of St Augustine, he became prior of the Augustinian foundation at St Osyth in Essex.

At the beginning of he was chosen from among several candidates to be archbishop of Canterbury, and as he refused to admit that Thurstan, archbishop of York, was independent of the see of Canterbury, this prelate refused to consecrate him, and the ceremony was performed by his own suffragan bishops. Proceeding to Rome the new archbishop found that Thurstan had anticipated his arrival in that city and had made out a strong case against him to Pope Calixtus II.

Cardinal John of Crema, who had arrived in England and was acting in an autocratic manner. Again travelling to Rome, William gained another victory, and was himself appointed papal legate legatus natus in England and Scotland, a precedent of considerable importance in the history of the English Church. The archbishop had sworn to Henry I. He died at Canterbury on the 21st of November William built the keep of Rochester Castle, and finished the building of the cathedral at Canterbury, which was dedicated with great pomp in May See W.

Hook, Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury ; and W. Stephens, History of the English Church A bridge across the Seine unites the main part of the town on the left bank with a suburb on the other side; handsome boulevards lead to the village of Essonnes pop. St Spire, the only survivor of the formerly numerous churches of Corbeil, dates from the 12th to the 15th centuries.

Behind the church there is a Gothic gateway. A monument has been erected to the brothers Galignani, publishers of Paris, who gave a hospital and orphanage to the town. Corbeil is the seat of a sub-prefect, and has tribunals of first instance and commerce and a chamber of commerce. It has important flour-mills, tallow-works, printing-works, large paper-works at Essonnes, and carries on boat and carriage-building, and the manufacture of plaster. The Decauville engineering works are in the vicinity.

There is trade in grain and flour. From the 10th to the 12th century Corbeil was the chief town of a powerful countship, but it was united to the crown by Louis VI. In St Louis concluded a treaty here with James I. Of the numerous sieges to which it has been exposed the most important were those by the Huguenots in , and by Alexander Farnese, prince of Parma, in Kragstein , the name in medieval architecture for a piece of stone jutting out of a wall to carry any super-incumbent weight. A piece of timber projecting in the same way was called a tassel or a bragger. Thus the carved ornaments from which the vaulting shafts spring at Lincoln are corbels.

Norman corbels are generally plain. In the Early English period they are sometimes elaborately carved, as at Lincoln above cited, and sometimes more simply so, as at Stone. They sometimes end with a point apparently growing into the wall, or forming a knot, as at Winchester, and often are supported by angels and other figures.

In the later periods the foliage or ornaments resemble those in the capitals. The corbels carrying the arches of the corbel tables in Italy and France were often elaborately moulded, and sometimes in two or three courses projecting over one another; those carrying the machicolations of English and French castles had four courses. The corbels carrying balconies in Italy and France were sometimes of great size and richly carved, and some of the finest examples of the Italian Cinquecento style are found in them.

Throughout England, in half-timber work, wood corbels abound, carrying window-sills or oriels in wood, which also are often carved. Sometimes these corbels carry a small arcade under the string course, the arches of which are pointed and trefoiled. As a rule the corbel table carries the gutter, but in Lombard work the arcaded corbel table was utilized as a decoration to subdivide the storeys and break up the wall surface. In Italy sometimes over the corbels will be a moulding, and above a plain piece of projecting wall forming a parapet see also Masonry.

At Oxford, to which he proceeded from Westminster school in , he was noted as a wit. On taking orders he continued to display this talent from the pulpit, and James I. In he became vicar of Stewkley, Berkshire, and in the same year was made dean of Christchurch, Oxford. In he was made bishop of Oxford, and in translated thence to the see of Norwich.

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His verses were first collected and published in His conviviality was famous, and many stories are told of his youthful merrymaking in London taverns in company with Ben Jonson, who always remained his close friend, and other dramatists. He died at Norwich on the 28th of July Corbel for the steps formed up the sides of the gable by breaking the coping into short horizontal beds. Corbridge was formerly of greater importance than at present. Its name, derived from the small river Cor, a tributary of the Tyne, is said to be associated with the Brigantian tribe of Corionototai. About it became the capital of Northumbria; later it was a borough and was long represented in parliament.

In David of Scotland made it a centre of military operations, and it was ravaged by Wallace in , by Bruce in , and by David II. Its chief remains of antiquity are a square peel-tower and the cruciform church of St Andrew, of which part of the fabric is of pre-Conquest date, though the building is mainly Early English.

Extensive use is made of building materials from the Roman station of Corstopitum also called Corchester , which lay half a mile west of Corbridge at the junction of the Cor with the Tyne. This site has from time to time yielded many valuable relics, notably a silver dish, discovered in , oz.

There were then unearthed remains of several buildings fronting a broad thoroughfare, one of which is the largest Roman building, except the baths at Bath, yet discovered in England. Two of these buildings were granaries, and indicate the importance of Corstopitum as a base of the northward operations of Antoninus Pius. After his conquests had been lost, and Corstopitum ceased to be a military centre, its military buildings passed into civilian occupation, of which many evidences have been found. A fine hoard of gold coins, wrapped in lead-foil and hidden in a wall, was discovered in Corstopitum ceased to exist early in the 5th century, and the site was never again occupied.

In the reign of Tiberius he held the office of praetor, and was appointed to the superintendence of the roads and bridges. Under Claudius he was governor of lower Germany A. He punished the Frisii who refused to pay the tribute, and was on the point of advancing against the Chauci, but was recalled by the emperor and ordered to withdraw behind the Rhine. In order to provide employment for his soldiers, Corbulo made them cut a canal from the Mosa Meuse to the northern branch of the Rhine, which still forms one of the chief drains between Leiden and Sluys, and before the introduction of railways was the ordinary traffic road between Leiden and Rotterdam.

Soon after the accession of Nero, Vologaeses Vologasus , king of Parthia, overran Armenia, drove out Rhadamistus, who was under the protection of the Romans, and set his own brother Tiridates on the throne. Corbulo was thereupon sent out to the East with full military powers. After some delay, he took the offensive in 58, and, reinforced by troops from Germany, attacked Tiridates. Artaxata and Tigranocerta were captured, and Tigranes, who had been brought up in Rome and was the obedient servant of the government, was installed king of Armenia.

In 61 Tigranes invaded Adiabene, an integral portion of the Parthian kingdom, and a conflict between Rome and Parthia seemed unavoidable. Vologaeses, however, thought it better to come to terms. It was agreed that both the Roman and Parthian troops should evacuate Armenia, that Tigranes should be dethroned, and the position of Tiridates recognized. The Roman government declined to accede to these arrangements, and L. Caesennius Paetus, governor of Cappadocia, was ordered to settle the question by bringing Armenia under direct Roman administration.

Paetus, a weak and incapable man, suffered a severe defeat at Rhandea 62 , where he was surrounded and forced to capitulate and to evacuate Armenia. The command of the troops was again entrusted to Corbulo. In 63, with a strong army, he crossed the Euphrates, but Tiridates declined to give battle and concluded peace. On his arrival at Cenchreae, the port of Corinth, messengers from Nero met Corbulo, and ordered him to commit suicide.

Corbulo wrote an account of his Asiatic experiences, which is lost. See Tacitus, Annals , xii. Schoonover, A Study of Cn. Domitius Corbulo Chicago, CORD derived through the Fr. From the use of such a cord for measuring, the word is applied to a quantity of cut wood, differing according to locality. Charlotte Corday was educated in the convent of the Holy Trinity at Caen, and then sent to live with an aunt. Another of her favourite authors was Plutarch, from whose pages she doubtless imbibed the idea of classic heroism and civic virtue which prompted the act that has made her name famous.

On the outbreak of the Revolution she began to study current politics, chiefly in the papers issued by the party afterwards known as the Girondins. Charlotte attended their meetings, and heard them speak; but we have no reason to believe that she saw any of them privately, till the day when she went to ask for introductions to friends of theirs in Paris. She saw that their efforts in Normandy were doomed to fail. She had heard of Marat as a tyrant and the chief agent in their overthrow, and she had conceived the idea of going alone to Paris and assassinating him,—doubtless thinking that this would break up the party of the Terrorists and be the signal of a counter-revolution, and ignorant of the fact that Marat was ill almost to the point of death, and that others were more influential than he.

Apparently she had thought of going to Paris in April, before the fall of the Girondins, for she had then procured a passport which she used in July. Your love for your native place doubtless makes you desirous of learning the events which have occurred in that part of the republic. I shall call at your residence in about an hour; have the goodness to receive me and to give me a brief interview. I will put you in a condition to render great service to France.

She was again refused an audience, and it was only when she called a third time July 13 that Marat, hearing her voice in the antechamber, consented to see her. He lay in a bathing tub, wrapped in towels, for he was suffering from a horrible disease which had almost reduced him to a state of putrefaction. She spoke to Marat of what was passing at Caen, and his only comment on her narrative was that all the men she had mentioned should be guillotined in a few days.

As he spoke she drew from her bosom a dinner-knife which she had bought the day before for two francs and plunged it into his left side. It pierced the lung and the aorta. Two women rushed in, and prevented Charlotte from escaping. A crowd collected round the house, and it was with difficulty that she was escorted to the prison of the Abbaye. She was sentenced to death, and calmly thanked her counsel for his efforts on her behalf, adding that the only defence worthy of her was an avowal of the act.

She was then conducted to the Conciergerie, where at her own desire her portrait now in the museum of Versailles was painted by the artist Jean Jacques Hauer. She preserved her perfect calmness to the last. When she saw the guillotine, she placed herself in position under the fatal blade without assistance from any one.

The knife fell, and one of the executioners held up her head by the hair, and had the brutality to strike it with his fist. Many believed they saw the dead face blush,—probably an effect of the red stormy sunset. It was the 17th of July It is difficult to analyse the character of Charlotte Corday; but there was in it much that was noble and exalted. Her mind had been formed by her studies on a pagan type.

Her tragic history was the subject of two anonymous tragedies, Charlotte Corday , said to be by the Conventional F. Gamon, and Charlotte Corday Caen, , neither of which have any merit; another by J. Salles is published by C. Vatel in Charlotte de Corday et les Girondins See further bibliographical articles in M. Tourneux, Bibl. Defrance, Charlotte Corday et la mort de Marat It was formed by the members of the district of the Cordeliers, when the Constituent Assembly suppressed the 60 districts of Paris to replace them with 48 sections 21st of May It held its meetings at first in the church of the monastery of the Cordeliers,—the name given in France to the Franciscan Observantists,—now the Dupuytren museum of anatomy in connexion with the school of medicine.

From , however, the Cordeliers met in a hall in the rue Dauphine. The aim of the society was to keep an eye on the government; its emblem on its papers was simply an open eye. Vincent, C. Ronsin and A. Its influence was especially seen in the creation of the revolutionary army destined to assure provisions for Paris, and in the establishment of the worship of Reason. The Cordeliers were combated by those revolutionists who wished to end the Terror, especially by Danton, and by Camille Desmoulins in his journal Le Vieux Cordelier.

We know little of its composition. The papers emanating from the Cordeliers are enumerated in M. See also A. The inventory of the pictures found in in the monastery of the Cordeliers was published by J. He possessed special tact and liking for teaching children, and taught first at Paris, where Calvin was among his pupils, and, after a number of changes, finally at Geneva, where he died on the 8th of September He wrote several books for children; the most famous is his Colloquia Colloquiorum scholasticorum libri quatuor , which has passed through innumerable editions, and was used in schools for three centuries after his time.

He also wrote: Principia Latine loquendi scribendique, sive selecta quaedam ex Epistolis Ciceronis ; De corrupti sermonis apud Gallos emendatione et Latine loquendi Ratione ; De syllabarum quantitate ; Conciones sacrae viginti sex Galliae ; Catonis disticha de moribus with Latin and French translation ; Remontrances et exhortations au roi et aux grands de son royaume.

See monograph by E. Berthault, De M. Corderio et creatis apud Protestantes litterarum studiis Cordes, which covers the summit and slopes of an isolated hill, was a bastide founded by Raymond VII. It preserves its medieval aspect to a remarkable degree, a large number of houses of the 13th and 14th centuries, with decorated fronts, forming its chief attraction.

A church of the same periods and remains of the original ramparts are also to be seen. The name was first given to the Andes ranges of South America, Las Cordilleras de los Andes , and applied to the extension of the system into Mexico. The material is produced in the form of cylindrical rods or strings of varying thicknesses by pressing the material, whilst in a soft and pasty state, through dies or perforations in a steel plate by hydraulic or screw pressure, hence the name cordite. The thickness or size of the rods varies from about 1 mm.

The smallest diameter is used for revolver cartridge and the largest for heavy guns. This variety is now known as Cordite Mark 1. This is known as Cordite M. The advantages of Cordite M.

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Cordite of either mark is a perfectly waterproof substance, containing only traces of water remaining from the manufacturing processes. It has a density of about 1. A rod may be bent to a moderate extent without breaking, and Cordite M. It can be impressed by the nail and cut with a knife, but is not in the least sticky, nor does the nitro-glycerin exude to any appreciable extent.

It can be obtained in a finely-divided state by scraping with a sharp knife, or on a new file, or by grinding in a mill, such as a coffee-mill, but can scarcely be pounded in a mortar. Cordite is of a brownish colour in mass, but is much paler when finely ground or scraped. The rods easily become electrified by gentle friction with a dry substance.

Like all colloidal substances it is an exceedingly bad conductor of heat. A piece ignited in air burns with a yellowish flame. With the smaller sizes, about 2 mm. Temperature appears to have an effect on the rate of burning. When much cooled it certainly burns more slowly than when at the ordinary air temperature, and is also more difficult to ignite. Rods of moderate thickness, say from 5 mm. The end of a rod of cordite may be struck a moderately heavy blow on an anvil without exploding or igniting.

The rod will first flatten out. A sharp blow will then detonate or explode the portion immediately under the hammer, the remainder of the rod remaining quite intact. Bullets may be fired through a bundle or package of cordite without detonating or inflaming it. This is of course a valuable quality. The exact temperature at which substances ignite or take fire is in all cases difficult to determine with any exactness.

Cordite is not instantly ignited on contact with a flame such as that of a candle, because, perhaps, of the condensation of some moisture from the products of burning of the candle upon it. A blow-pipe flame or a red-hot wire is more rapid in action. Carefully prepared gun-cotton and nitro-glycerin will, however, withstand this temperature for a long time without serious detriment, excepting that nitro-glycerin is slightly volatilized. When incorporated in cordite, however, the nitro-glycerin appears to be much less volatile than when free at this temperature.

Under reduced pressure 3 or 4 in. It is very doubtful whether at ordinary temperatures and pressures any nitro-glycerin whatever evaporates. Cordite may be kept in contact with clean, dry metals, wood, paper, and a number of ordinary substances without deterioration. In contact with damp and easily oxidizable metals all the substances of the gun-cotton class are liable to a slight local action, but the colloid nature, and probably also the contained mineral jelly, protect cordite considerably in these circumstances.

Ammonia has a deleterious action, but even this proceeds but slowly. Cordite does not appear to change when kept under water. The manufacturing processes comprise: drying the gun-cotton and nitro-glycerin; melting and filtering the mineral jelly; weighing and mixing the nitro-glycerin with the gun-cotton; moistening this mixture with acetone until it becomes a jelly; and then incorporating in a special mixing mill for about three hours, after which the weighed amount of mineral jelly is added and the incorporation continued for about one hour or until judged complete.

The incorporating or mixing machine is covered as closely as possible to prevent too great evaporation of the very volatile acetone. The right consistency having been produced, the material is placed in a steel cylinder provided with an arrangement of dies or holes of regulated size at one end, and a piston or plunger at the other. The plunger is worked either by hydraulic power or by a screw driven from ordinary shafting. The material issues from the cylinders in the form of cord or string of the diameter of the holes of the die.

The thicker sizes are cut off, as they issue, into lengths of about 3 ft. The small sizes, such as those employed for rifle cartridges, are wound on reels or drums, as the material issues from the press cylinders, in lengths of many yards. Some of the solvent or gelatinizing material acetone is lost during the incorporating, and more during the pressing process and the necessary handling, but much still remains in the cordite at this stage.

It is now dried in heated rooms, where it is generally spread out on shelves, a current of air passing through carrying the acetone vapour with it. In the more modern works this air current is drawn, finally, through a solution of a substance such as sodium bisulphite; a fixed compound is thus formed with the acetone, which by suitable treatment may be recovered. The time taken in the drying varies with the thickness of the cordite from a few days to several weeks.

For several reasons it is desirable that this process should go on gradually and slowly. Slight differences may arise from the raw materials, cotton waste or glycerin, or in the making of these into gun-cotton or nitro-glycerin respectively. The history of each box of large-sized or reel of small-sized cordite is therefore known up to the operation of blending and packing. The final testing is by firing proofs, as in the case of the old gunpowders. The gun-cotton employed for cordite is made in the usual way see Gun-Cotton , with the exception of treating with alkali.

It is also after complete washing with water gently pressed into small cylinders about 3 in. The pressure applied is only sufficient to make the gun-cotton just hold together so that it is easily mixed with the nitro-glycerin. The mineral jelly or vaseline is obtained at a certain stage of distillation of petroleum, and is a mixture of hydrocarbons, paraffins, olefines and some other unsaturated hydrocarbons, possibly aromatic, which no doubt play a very important part as preservatives in cordite.

In the upper free portion a piece of filter-paper impregnated with a mixture of potassium iodide and starch paste is suspended by a platinum wire from the stopper of the tube. A portion of the test paper is moistened with a solution of glycerin to render it more sensitive than the dry part. A faint brown colour appearing on the moistened portion indicates that some oxides of nitrogen have been evolved from the cordite. This brown tint is compared with a standard, and the time taken before the standard tint appears is noted.

The time fixed upon as a test of relative stability is an arbitrary one determined by examination of well-known specimens. Should the cordite or other explosive contain traces of mercury salts, such as mercuric chloride, which is sometimes added as a preservative, this test is rendered nugatory, and no coloration may appear or only after a long exposure , although the sample may be of indifferent stability. It is now customary to examine specially for mercury, either by heating the explosive in contact with gold leaf or silver foil, or by burning the substance and examining the flame in the spectroscope.

The method of examination known as the vacuum silvered vessel process is probably not interfered with by the presence of very small quantities of mercury. Such a rise indicates internal oxidation or decomposition of the explosive; it is accompanied by an evolution of nitrogen dioxide, NO 2 , the depth of colour of which is noted through a side tube attached to the bulb. As all explosives of this class would in time decompose sufficiently to give these indications, time periods or limits have been fixed at which an appreciable and definite rise in temperature and production of red fumes indicate relative stability or instability.

The father died when he and his elder brother, Don Alonso, were mere boys. The counts of Aguilar carried on an hereditary feud with the rival house of Cabra, and the children were carried by their vassals into the faction fights of the two families. As a younger son Gonzalo had his fortune to make, but he was generously aided by the affection of his elder brother, who was very wealthy. During the civil war, and the conflict with Portugal which disturbed the first years of her reign, he fought under the grand master of Santiago, Alonso de Cardenas.

After the battle of Albuera, the grand master gave him especial praise, saying that he could always see Gonzalo to the front because he was conspicuous by the splendour of his armour.

In this mini-symposium, Dr. Cruz will highlight programs within NIH that support pediatric rehabilitation engineering. Keywords: Neural interfaces - Implantable systems , Motor neuroprostheses , Sensory neuroprostheses Abstract: Abstract— Cerebral Palsy is the most common childhood disability with no cure and delayed diagnosis. There are however opportunities to provide assistance via electrical control of muscle groups, spasticity and sensory perception including pain management.

Challenges include developmental differences and intact afferent pathways that may convey pain. We see opportunities in both central and peripheral implanted stimulation and monitoring. While this appears to be a challenging topic for children we should take inspiration from the clear success engineers have delivered via early neural intervention with cochlear implants in providing lifelong benefits to recipients in the restoration of auditory function.

Keywords: Motor neuroprostheses - Neuromuscular stimulation , Neurorehabilitation , Neurological disorders - Treatment methodologies Abstract: Contralaterally-controlled functional electrical stimulation CCFES was developed to assist hand opening during task practice for individuals with hemiplegia. We demonstrated the ability of children with hemiplegia to self-administer CCFES integrated with hand therapy video games at home during a six-week intervention. Keywords: Neurorehabilitation , Motor neuroprostheses , Neural interfaces - Body interfaces Abstract: Powered exoskeletons promise to restore walking and improve the quality of life of persons with lower-limb gait disabilities.

However, this technology is currently unavailable to the young pediatric population outside of a research setting. We introduce the design principles for the development of a child-specific powered exoskeleton for assist-as-needed overground walking. The pediatric lower-extremity gait system P-LEGS exoskeleton is modular, with bilaterally active hip, knee and ankle joints and assist-as-needed multimodal shared control for young children of age with lower-limb disabilities.

Emphasis will be in the lessons learned regarding engineering, regulatory, clinical, and end-user metrics during the development and initial validation of the device. Keywords: Motor neuroprostheses - Robotics , Neurorehabilitation , Neuromuscular systems - Locomotion Abstract: Wearable exoskeletons provide the opportunity to revolutionize gait training, particularly in pediatric populations, by expanding the environment for rehabilitation.

To capitalize on this potential new control approaches are necessary that emphasize maintaining or increasing volitional muscle activity of the user while facilitating learning of new gait patterns. In this work we introduce a prototype pediatric exoskeleton and demonstrate real time implementation of an adaptable approach to exoskeleton control for knee extension assistance.

Keywords: Neuromuscular systems - Locomotion , Motor neuroprostheses - Robotics , Motor learning, neural control, and neuromuscular systems Abstract: Cerebral Palsy CP is defined as a disorder that appears in infancy and permanently affect posture and body movement but does not worsen over time. This paper introduces and discuss a robot-based training program for gait rehabilitation of pediatric population with Cerebral Palsy.

The robotic-based therapies were implement in the CPWalker device and recreates a situation as similar as possible to a real gait scenario, encouraging the patients to control different movements associated with gait: not only individual movements of lower limb joints but also the synergy between them while maintaining a proper posture of the upper body. Hence, the study of CI patients can serve as a systems-level model to understand the neural mechanisms evoked from rehabilitation.

CI patients have significantly lower near point of convergence and positive fusional vergence and were more symptomatic compared to BNC p Keywords: Neurorehabilitation , Brain functional imaging - EEG , Neural interfaces - Bioelectric sensors Abstract: This study explored the contributions of cortical activity in the primary sensorimotor cortex SMC and the posterior parietal cortex PPC to recovery responses following unpredictable trip perturbations.

A technology platform equipped with a programmable split-belt treadmill induced unpredictable trip perturbations while walking. Power spectral analysis was performed to quantify the electrocortical activity of two clusters in the SMC and PPC during quiet standing, steady state walking, and recovery periods. Alpha Hz power of the SMC and PPC was significantly suppressed during the recovery period compared to the standing and walking periods. The main finding of this study could inform the future development gait perturbation paradigms that facilitate the recovery responses in different populations, based on motor learning by repetition.

Keywords: Neurorehabilitation , Neuromuscular systems - Peripheral mechanisms , Neuromuscular systems - Learning and adaption Abstract: We aimed to investigate the impact of ankle joint therapy with low-amplitude, high-frequency perturbation training on neuromuscular abnormalities associated with spasticity in children with Cerebral Palsy CP. Four spastic CP children two males and two females received a session training of high-frequency and low-amplitude perturbations superimposed on passive stretches over the range of motion of their ankle as well as local perturbations at dorsiflexion position.

The associated passive parameters, including total passive range of motions, passive range of motions toward dorsiflexion, stiffness, energy loss and torque dynamic gain were evaluated at the baseline and after a 10 session training. Our findings indicate that passive range of motion increased, and passive reflex stiffness, which usually increases in CP children, decreased following the completion of training. Our results demonstrate that intensive sessions of perturbation therapy could be considered an effective therapeutic mean for the management of spasticity and contracture, and eventually the enhancement of mobility of CP children.

Many patients surviving from a stroke lose the sense of agency over their body. This is due to impairments in both motor control and sensory brain functions. As a result of this lack in the sense of agency, stroke patients tend to lose the intention of moving the paralyzed limb, which results in further deterioration of brain functions and worsening muscles and joints. The present study proposes a motor rehabilitation system using virtual reality to improve the sense of agency during upper-limb movement which is required for various daily life activities such as eating meals and operating devices.

Specifically, participants were instructed to move their hand to track a moving target ball in a virtual reality environment, while the position of their real hand was measured via a motion capture system. Participants were shown another ball presenting the position of their hand in virtual reality. We tested the proposed system with healthy participants, of which the motor control was disturbed by a 1-kg weight attached on the wrist.

Participants reported their sense of agency after each trial. The results showed that the sense of agency was enhanced by the proposed intervention. Our results pointed out a potentially useful method to improve the sense of agency during body movements using modified visual feedback, which may contribute to the development of rehabilitation for stroke patients. Keywords: Neurorehabilitation , Motor neuroprostheses - Robotics , Motor learning, neural control, and neuromuscular systems Abstract: In a robotic rehabilitation setup, patient's safety and interaction stability are critical throughout the therapy.

This paper addresses the stability aspect by proposing a method to vary the endpoint stiffness using a variable impedance mechanism. The proposed device consists of permanent magnets in an antagonistic configuration that acts as springs and the variation in stiffness is achieved by modifying the separation between those magnets.

This device is mounted on the end-effector of an admittance controlled robotic arm and tested with the help of healthy humans on a virtual maze traversal experiment consisting of both fine and gross motor regions. Moreover, the subjects are tested both in normal and simulated tremor conditions to verify the effectiveness of the device. The experimental results show that the VSM can not only suppress the high-frequency forces but can also reduce the interference of human endpoint stiffness in the stability of the robot.

Keywords: Neurorehabilitation , Motor learning, neural control, and neuromuscular systems , Neuromuscular systems - Locomotion Abstract: We aimed to characterize the impact of anti-gravity locomotion training on the structure and function of the corticospinal tract CST in cerebral palsy CP. Fourteen CP children participated. Nine children were trained with an antigravity treadmill Alter-G and five children received occupational therapy OT. Treatments were provided for 45 min each session, 3 sessions per week for 8 weeks. Walking ability was evaluated by measuring gait speed, endurance, balance, and mobility.

The evaluations were performed before and after the interventions. The results showed that FA improved in both sides of the brain for the AlterG group, but enhanced only in the less affected side of the OT group. The enhancement of the CST function was similar in both groups. Walking speed and endurance also enhanced in both groups, but the improvement was greater in the AlterG group. Our findings demonstrate that AlterG training can improve gait ability, and simultaneously result in brain neuroplasticity. The clinical implication is that AlterG training can be used as an effective rehabilitation approach to improve gait persistently.

Keywords: Model building - Network modeling , Modeling of cell, tissue, and regenerative medicine - Cell division Abstract: Breast cancer grading is important for patient prognosis, and the mitosis count is one of the most important indicators for breast cancer grading. Traditional methods use handcraft features and deep learning based methods to detect mitosis in a classified model. These methods are time-consuming and difficult for practical clinical practice application.

For this reason, this paper proposes an improved object detection method for automatic mitosis detection from histological images. First, we use a convolutional neural network CNN to automatically extract mitosis features. Then, we use the region proposed network RPN to locate a set of class-agnostic mitosis proposals. Finally, we use the improved R-CNN subnet to screen for mitosis from these proposals. Our approach achieved the best results in the ICPR mitosis detection competition test dataset.

Additionally, our proposed method is fast enough to be potentially used in clinical and health centers. Keywords: Translational biomedical informatics - Knowledge modeling , Model building - Algorithms and techniques for systems modeling , Data-driven modeling Abstract: When investigating the biophysical effects induced by the interaction between electromagnetic fields and biological cells to mediate biomedical applications, it is crucial to estimate the electric quantities, i. Here, authors present a microdosimetric study based on a 2D realistic model of a cell and its endoplasmic reticulum.

The microdosimetric analysis of the cell and endoplasmic reticulum was quantified in terms of electric field and transmembrane potentials induced by an externally applied ns pulsed electric field. In addition, electroporated local membrane sites and pore densities were also considered. This study opens the way to numerically assist experimental applications of nanosecond pulsed electric fields for control and bio-manipulation of cells and subcellular organelles.

Keywords: Model building - Parameter estimation , Model building - Sensitivity analysis , Model building - Algorithms and techniques for systems modeling Abstract: One of the major challenges is to identify the statistical model underlying the heterogeneity in viral protein expression in single cells. In this endeavor, we propose integrated framework combining quantitative imaging and computational tool to address the cell-to-cell variability in protein expression by random variate generation following probability distributions. Here, we show that statistical modeling using probability density function of various distribution offers considerable potential for providing stochastic inputs to Monte Carlo simulation.

Specifically, we present the ranking between three distribution families including gamma, normal and Weibull distribution using comparison of cumulative frequency obtained from experiment and simulation. The major contribution of the proposed simulation method is to identify the underlying statistical model in kinetic parameters that captures the variability in protein expression in single cells obtained through imaging using confocal microscopy.

Then, the slow-fast DNMM is introduced by considering slow dynamics relative to membrane potential and firing rate of some internal parameters of the DNMM to replicate pathological evolution of ion currents. Through simulation, it is illustrated that the slow-fast DNMM exhibits transitions to and from seizures with etiologies that are linked either to random input fluctuations or pathological evolution of slow states.

Keywords: Data-driven modeling , Computational modeling - Structural bioinformatics , Model building - Parameter estimation Abstract: Abnormal cortical folding patterns may be related to neurodevelopmental disorders such as lissencephaly and polymicrogyria.

In this context, computational modeling is a powerful tool to provide a better understanding of the early brain folding process. Recent studies based on biomechanical modeling have shown that mechanical forces play a crucial role in the formation of cortical convolutions. However, the correlation between simulation results and biological facts, and the effect of physical parameters in these models remain unclear. In this paper, we propose a new brain longitudinal length growth model to improve brain model growth. In addition, we investigate the effect of the initial cortical thickness on folding patterns, quantifying the folds by the surface-based three-dimensional gyrification index and a spectral analysis of gyrification.

The results tend to show that the use of such biomechanical models could highlight the links between neurodevelopmental diseases and physical parameters. Keywords: Model building - Network modeling , Computational modeling - Biological networks Abstract: The human brain could be understood as a vast network composed of interconnected regions forming hierarchical and overlapping subnetworks.

Cortical thickness CT correlations, as measure of structural connectedness, can be transformed into structural networks. Those can be analyzed via cluster detection algorithms to investigate their organization. An analysis pipeline from CT to links, networks, clusters and beyond is composed of a lot of consecutive reasoned or just arbitrary steps. How much can different pipeline components alter the result? Which step is to be considered most influential?

In order to give sufficient answer, we critically compare 96 different pipelines. The results of this study are to some extent surprising as the choice of a specific CT correlation and correction procedure can lead to more diverse results than the decision between taking only absolute CT correlations or ignoring all negative ones. Thus, a summary of multiple detector results with different but suited properties is highly advisable until a theory based neuroscientific recommendation for the best approach will be found. Using Radiofrequency ablation RFA to target the motor branches of the median and ulnar nerve may provide an additional treatment to Botulinum Toxin for spasticity in the hand.

However, there are a limited number of studies that report the use of RFA in treating upper-limb spasticity. This prompts the need to establish a simulation model that has been tested against physical phantom to help determine the efficacy of RFA as a treatment for spasticity. Keywords: Image-guided devices - RF and microwave ablation , Ablation systems and technologies Abstract: Medical lasers are commonly used in interventions to ablate tumor tissue.

Recently, the picosecond infrared laser has been introduced, which greatly decreases damaging of surrounding healthy tissue. Further, its ablation plume contains intact biomolecules which can be collected and analyzed by mass spectrometry. This allows for a specific chracterization of the tissue. For a precise treatment, however, a suitable guidance is needed. Further, spatial information is required if the tissue is to be characterized at different parts in the ablated area. Therefore, we propose a system which employs optical coherence tomography as the guiding imaging modality.

We describe a prototypical system which provides automatic ablation of areas defined in the image data. For this purpose, we use a calibration with a robot which drives the laser fiber and collects the arising plume. We demonstrate our system on porcine tissue samples. Keywords: Ablation systems and technologies , Image-guided devices - Interstitial thermal therapy Abstract: The treatment of choice for the unresectable cholangiocarcinoma is based on biliary decompression procedures.

Despite stent placement is the standard of care, it is related to well-known complications. Hence, alternative techniques were proposed. Ideally, they should guarantee an adequate intraductal disobstruction, without injuring the surrounding tissues. This pre-clinical study aims to investigate the thermal effects of the laser ablation LA in the biliary tree, in terms of intraductal and surrounding tissue temperature achieved with different laser settings. The common bile ducts in their upper and lower portion of two pigs were ablated for 6 minutes with a diode laser at 3 W and 5 W.

A custom-made laser applicator was used to obtain a circumferential ablation within the ducts. The intraductal temperature Tid was monitored by means of a fiber Bragg grating FBG sensor, while an infrared thermal camera monitored the T distribution in the surrounding tissues Tsup. The mean difference between Tid and the averaged Tsup values was evaluated. Based on the results obtained in this preliminary study, the possibility to equip the laser probe with temperature sensor can improve the control and the safety of the procedure; this solution will guarantee the monitoring of the treatment while preserving the lumen and the surrounding structures.

Keywords: Ablation systems and technologies Abstract: Electrosurgical cutting is used for surgical incisions and resections where hemostasis is important. Much research has been performed on electrosurgical generator control methods that can improve cutting performance. It is also known that speed of the electrode as it is applied to tissue can impact cutting performance. However little work has been done to tie electrode speed to generator improvements. In this paper, the theory of cutting is analyzed, and experiments are performed to determine the impacts of electrode speed combined with generator control methods.

This analysis and the experiments demonstrate that 1 voltage control provides improvement to power control for cutting, 2 power factor control may further improve cutting, and 3 speed compensation is even more impactful in improving cutting performance. Keywords: Ablation systems and technologies , Diagnostic devices - Physiological monitoring Abstract: The interstitial cells of Cajal ICC initiate, coordinate and propagate bioelectrical slow wave activity that drives gastric motility. In the healthy human stomach, slow wave activity is highly organized. Gastric motility disorders are associated with dysrhythmias.

While ablation is widely used to treat cardiac dysrhythmias, this approach has yet to be trialed in the stomach. In this study, radiofrequency RF ablation was applied in pig stomachs in vivo to create targeted electrical conduction blocks. Termination of slow wave propagation at ablation sites was confirmed by a decrease in extracellular slow wave amplitude from 1.

The use of high-resolution electrical mapping can now be employed to investigate ablation as a potential therapy for gastric dysrhythmias in motility disorders. Keywords: Ablation systems and technologies , Image-guided devices - RF and microwave ablation , Computer modeling for treatment planning Abstract: Abstract—This paper introduces a novel technology for treating early-stage NSCL cancer using an endobronchial approach via a flexible radiofrequency ablation RFA catheter.

Methods — The RFA system consisted of an ablation catheter, radiofrequency generator, irrigation pump for infusion of hypertonic saline HS and a laptop. The catheter carried an occlusion balloon, a 5 mm long RF electrode, with irrigation holes, and a 1 mm long electrode for bipolar impedance measurements.

The OD was 1. Two swine were then treated at 60 W for 15 min per bronchus. Several bronchi were involved. Animals were survived for six weeks. Results — Bench studies showed that 60 W, 7 — 15 min ablations can produce large ablation volumes, in excess of 3 — 4 cm diameter. In the chronic animal study, no clinically adverse events occurred. There was no evidence of hemorrhage. Animals vital signs, breathing patterns and their behavior were normal throughout the six-week period.

The dimensions of coagulative necrotic sequestra met expectations, as at six weeks they exceeded volumes corresponding to 2 cm nodules, the size of tumors normally addressed in the peripheral lung by localized therapy. Conclusion — This therapy showed promise. Appropriate energy settings combined with suitable treatment locations safely produced large ablation volumes of uniform thermal coagulative necrosis.

Further studies may develop it into a mainstream therapy for NSCL cancer. Keywords: Ablation, Cancer, Catheter. Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging - Cardiac imaging , Image segmentation , Cardiac imaging and image analysis Abstract: Machine learning algorithms enable automatic analysis of multidimensional data from medical imaging examinations and other clinical information.

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These methods can be combined with atlas-based analysis of heart geometry and function to give morphometric indices which are optimally associated with clinical factors. We describe methods which can be used to characterize patients with heart failure according to a rich set of morphological features which may give insight into the underlying pathological processes. Keywords: Coronary blood flow , Coronary artery disease , Cardiac catheterization Abstract: Percutaneous coronary intervention PCI guidance has evolved from a subjective, visually-guided approach to a more objective, physiology-guided one.

Invasive guidewire-based physiological measurements have become on-the-spot, table-side tools for clinical decision making. It follows that the technology involved has progressed to allow more robust, high fidelity measurements to be made. A systematic review of the literature was conducted and landmark papers in coronary physiology identified.

Major landmark trials in the last 2 decades have confirmed the utility of coronary blood flow and pressure measurements in assessing the functional importance of coronary artery stenoses, and in predicting the clinical outcomes of patients with and without PCI. Further refinements in coronary physiology assessment include resting indices such as the instantaneous wave free ratio iFR , which negate the use of hyperaemic agents, thus reducing procedure time and improving patient comfort.

The success and global uptake of iFR has led to the proliferation of a host of other resting indices with similar performance and outcomes. Invasive coronary physiology assessment provides objective, reliable, reproducible assessments of coronary artery disease severity. Having a simple bedside tool that aids decision making helps physicians make the correct clinical decisions for each patient.

Refinements in guidewire technology will improve ease of use for the interventional cardiologist, whilst reducing the potential of harm to the patient. Keywords: Vascular mechanics and hemodynamics - Vascular Hemodynamics , Vascular mechanics and hemodynamics - Vascular mechanics , Vascular mechanics and hemodynamics - Vascular Disease Abstract: We developed a vessel length-based fractional flow reserve FFR simulation method in patient-specific models and compared the results with clinical results.

In this method, vessel lengths are used to identify simulation parameters. Then, we evaluate its clinical diagnostic performance in multi-center study. Keywords: Coronary blood flow , Coronary artery disease , Vascular mechanics and hemodynamics - Vascular Hemodynamics Abstract: Coronary artery fractional flow reserve FFR , the ratio of distal to proximal pressures in a stenotic lesion, has been shown to confer clear benefit for guiding percutaneous coronary intervention PCI.

However, FFR requires pressure to be measured invasively, which is a barrier to wider use of the method. A noninvasive method to quantify FFR is needed. We described methods which can be used to characterize the coronary plaque morphology and to derive FFR from computed tomography coronary angiography CTCA with reduced-order computational fluid dynamic CFD algorithm.

We studied the diagnostic performance of the method for diagnosing ischemic lesion with reference to the gold standard of invasive FFR in human subjects. The results demonstrated better accuracy than anatomical assessment. Coronary plaque morphology with reduced order computational fluid dynamics-based FFR improved diagnostic accuracy and can reduce the risks associated with invasive coronary angiography. Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging - Cardiac imaging , Magnetic resonance imaging - Diffusion tensor, diffusion weighted and diffusion spectrum imaging , Cardiac imaging and image analysis Abstract: Cardiac microstructure critically underlies normal cardiac performance.

Herein, we describe recent advances in cDTI that enable evaluation of myocardial microstructure and microstructural dynamics in vivo. Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging - Cardiac imaging , Cardiac imaging and image analysis , Functional image analysis Abstract: Heart failure is a chronic disease that causes repeat hospitalizations, reduced quality of life and increased mortality, and is a major global healthcare burden. Cardiac imaging facilitates heart failure diagnosis, elucidation of the etiology, monitoring of progression and prognostication.

Comprehensive assessment of myocardial tissue characteristics as well as systolic and diastolic functional parameters in the ventricles and atria are needed to diagnose heart failure, especially in heart failure with preserved ejection. Cardiac magnetic resonance CMR is an imaging modality that yields high-quality images of all heart chambers, and is the reference standard for measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction.

However, conventional CMR analyses fail to exploit the rich 4D spatiotemporal information contained in the CMR image dataset, which we believe can be unlocked using the appropriate methods for comprehensive quantitation of left and right ventricular, as well as atrial systolic and diastolic functions. We pioneered computational post-processing techniques that can quantitate regional ventricular function as well as measure phasic atrial strains and their corresponding strain rates.

The proof-of-concept and validation of these novel parameters, as well as relevant clinical applications, will be discussed. Our results show concordance between the resultant activation maps and consistent HRF shapes for most of the subjects, suggesting that CSC can be used as a tool for the detection of reliable events in the EEG. Exploring the structural and functional connections and interactions between brain regions is beneficial to detect MCI.

For this reason, we propose a new model for automatic MCI diagnosis based on this information. Firstly, a new functional brain network estimation method is proposed. Self-calibration is introduced using quality indicators, and functional brain network estimation is performed at the same time. Then we integrate the functional and structural connected neuroimaging patterns into our multi-task learning model to select informative feature. By identifying synergies and differences between different tasks, the most discriminative features are determined. Finally, the most relevant features are sent to the support vector machine classifier for diagnosis and identification of MCI.

At the same time, compared with the existing classification methods, the proposed method achieves relatively high classification accuracy. In addition, it can identify the most discriminative brain regions. These findings suggest that our approach not only improves classification performance, but also successfully identifies important biomarkers associated with disease. Keywords: Multimodal imaging , Brain imaging and image analysis , Functional image analysis Abstract: Perceptual choice is affected not only by the stimulus evidence present in the decision alternatives, but also by the propensity to choose one alternative over another.

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In the drift-diffusion model DDM , such bias can be expressed either as a change in drift rate or a change in starting point of the decision process. Car vs. House visual categorization task. We spatially and temporally dissociated the neural correlates underlying the face decision bias as a function of stimulus evidence. Firstly, by fitting the DDM, we quantitatively showed that the change in drift rate best accounted for the decision bias towards faces when sensory evidence was abundant, whereas the shift in starting point best explained the bias effect when inadequate sensory evidence was present.

Secondly, we used the EEG single-trial variability to temporally identify brain regions modulated by the two sets of subject-wise bias parameters in the fMRI analysis. Imaging results showed a double dissociation of the bias effects in space and in time as the level of sensory evidence changed: bias in drift rate correlated only with an early sensory network while bias in starting point activated a distributed late decision-related network. Keywords: Brain imaging and image analysis , Functional image analysis , Multivariate image analysis Abstract: Independent component analysis ICA , as a data driven method, has shown to be a powerful tool for functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI data analysis.

One drawback of this multivariate approach is, that it is naturally not convenient for analysis of group studies. Therefore various techniques have been proposed in order to overcome this limitation of ICA. An empirical mode decomposition EMD is used to generate reference signals in a data driven manner, which can be incorporated into a constrained version of ICA cICA , what helps to overcome the inherent ambiguities.

The results of the proposed workflow are then compared to those obtained by a widely used group ICA approach. It is demonstrated that intrinsic modes, extracted by EMD, are suitable to serve as references for cICA to obtain typical resting state patterns, which are consistent over subjects. This novel processing pipeline makes it transparent for the user, how comparable activity patterns across subjects emerge, and also the trade-off between similarity across subjects and preserving individual features can be well adjusted and adapted for different requirements in the new work-flow.

Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging - Diffusion tensor, diffusion weighted and diffusion spectrum imaging , Magnetic resonance imaging - MR neuroimaging , Brain imaging and image analysis Abstract: Cerebral microbleeds CMBs , a common manifestation of mild traumatic brain injury mTBI , have been sporadically implicated in the neurocognitive deficits of mTBI victims but their clinical significance has not been established adequately.

CMBs were segmented automatically from susceptibility-weighted imaging SWI by leveraging the intensity gradient properties of SWI to identify CMB-related hypointensities using gradient-based edge detection. A detailed diffusion magnetic resonance imaging dMRI atlas of WM was used to segment and cluster tractography streamlines whose prototypes were then identified. The correlation coefficient was calculated between A FA values at vertices along streamline prototypes and B topological along-streamline distances between these vertices and the nearest CMB. Across subjects, the CMB identification approach achieved a sensitivity of The correlation coefficient was found to be negative and, additionally, statistically significant for Multi-shell diffusion MRI is able to greatly increase specificity by concomitantly exploring multiple diffusion timescales.

If multi-shell acquisition is combined with an exploration of different diffusion times, diffusion data allows the estimation of sophisticated compartmental models, which provide greatly enhanced specificity to the presence of different tissue sub-compartments, as well as estimates of intra-voxel axonal diameter distributions. In this paper, we apply a multiple-b-value, high angular resolution multi-shell diffusion MRI protocol with varying diffusion times to a cohort of multiple sclerosis MS patients and compare them to a population of healthy controls. By fitting the AxCaliber model, we are able to extract indices for axonal diameter across the whole brain.

We show that MS is associated with widespread increases of axonal diameter and that our axonal diameter estimation provides the highest discrimination power for local alterations in normal-appearing white matter in MS compared to controls. AxCaliber has the potential to disentangle microstructural alterations in MS and holds great promises to become a sensitive and specific non-invasive biomarker of irreversible disease progression. Keywords: Vascular mechanics and hemodynamics - Arterial pressure in cardiovascular disease , Vascular mechanics and hemodynamics - Vascular Hemodynamics , Cardiovascular, respiratory, and sleep devices - Nearables Abstract: We developed an iPhone X application for cuff-less and calibration-free measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

We tested the application, along with a FDA-cleared finger cuff device, against an arm cuff device in human subjects. The application was almost as accurate as the finger cuff device. Keywords: Cardiovascular and respiratory signal processing - Blood pressure measurement , Cardiovascular, respiratory, and sleep devices - Wearables , Vascular mechanics and hemodynamics - Pulse wave velocity Abstract: The performance of the Aktiia OBPM algorithms to measure blood pressure at the wrist was investigated in this study.

For two months, six volunteers recorded blood pressure values at the arm using a brachial cuff. Simultaneously, optical signals at the wrist were recorded using off-the-shelf PPG sensors. At the end of the study, the optical signals were processed by the Aktiia OBPM algorithms to generate blood pressure estimations. The algorithms were initialized using the first brachial blood pressure value recorded at the inclusion day. Keywords: Cardiovascular and respiratory signal processing - Blood pressure measurement , Cardiovascular and respiratory signal processing - Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Variability , Cardiovascular and respiratory system modeling - Cardiac models Abstract: Based on pulse wave analysis, we have developed a new technique to monitor the changes in blood pressure using a photoplethysmography PPG sensor.

This technique extracts physiologically motivated features from the PPG waveform and combines the features to estimate systolic blood pressure SBP and diastolic blood pressure DBP individually. The proposed technology has been validated in accordance with IEEE standard This technology performs a local assessment of incremental pulse wave velocity PWV and arterial wall dynamics in a simultaneous fashion, for direct evaluation of BP without any calibration.

Methodological considerations concerning this technique were identified and addressed for achieving reliable measurements of BP parameters and waveform from the carotid artery. As part of a small clinical study, we discuss the effects of hypertensive medication, a commonly overlooked factor which may affect diagnostic results. We conclude that the proposed GMM-HMM estimation method is a very promising method improving the accuracy of automated non-invasive measurement of blood pressure.

Keywords: Signal pattern classification , Data mining and processing in biosignals Abstract: This study aimed at evaluating whether people with a normal cognitive function can be discriminated from subjects with a mild impairment of cognitive function based on a set of acoustic features derived from spontaneous speech. Linear mixed model analyses were performed to select the features able to significantly distinguish between groups.

The leave-one-out cross validation was used for testing and the classifier accuracy was computed. When the voice features were used alone, an overall classification accuracy of 0. When age and years of education were additionally used, the overall accuracy increased up to 0. These performances were lower than the accuracy of 0. However, in that study the classification was based on several tasks, including more cognitive demanding tasks.

Our results are encouraging because acoustic features, derived for the first time only from an ecologic continuous speech task, were able to discriminate people with a normal cognitive function from people with a mild cognitive decline. This study poses the basis for the development of a mobile application performing automatic voice analysis on-the-fly during phone calls, which might potentially support the detection of early signs of functional cognitive decline. Keywords: Signal pattern classification , Time-frequency and time-scale analysis - Empirical mode decomposition in biosignal analysis Abstract: Cough is a common symptom of numerous respiratory diseases.

In certain cases, such as asthma and COPD, early identification of coughs is useful for the management of these diseases. This paper presents an algorithm for automatic identification of cough events from acoustic signals. The algorithm is based on only four features of the acoustic signals including LPC coefficient, tonality index, spectral flatness and spectral centroid with a logistic regression model to label sound segments into cough and non-cough events. The algorithm achieves sensitivity of of Its high performance despite its small size of feature-space demonstrate its potential for use in remote patient monitoring systems for automatic cough detection using acoustic signals.

Keywords: Nonlinear dynamic analysis - Biomedical signals , Physiological systems modeling - Multivariate signal processing , Physiological systems modeling - Signal processing in physiological systems Abstract: One of the primary difference of mankind from other species is his ability to communicate verbally. Our brain upon framing a sentence, coordinates with the oro-pharyngeal-laryngeal muscle groups to produce the speech with the help of vocal cord and mouth aperture.

However, some individuals due to congenital or illness, may loose their ability to speak in spite of their brain framing speech. Research on speech restoration through brain computer interface BCI is still at an early stage. Through this study, we have explored the regression between the chaos parameters of acoustic signal and electroencephalography EEG signal for different vowels chosen from International Phonetic Alphabets IPA.

The vowels were categorised into two categories, namely, soft vowels and diphthongs. We have selected the EEG channels based on their higher contribution towards the first principle component. Goodness of fit parameters were evaluated for the regression analysis to explore the most suitable chaos parameter. Keywords: Signal pattern classification , Data mining and processing in biosignals , Data mining and processing - Pattern recognition Abstract: Schizophrenia and depression are the two most common mental disorders associated with negative symptoms that contribute to poor functioning and quality of life for millions of patients globally.

This study is part of a larger research project. The overall aim of the project is to develop an automated objective pipeline that aids clinical diagnosis and provides more insights into symptoms of mental illnesses. In our previous work, We have analyzed non-verbal cues and linguistic cues of schizophrenic patients.

The Project Gutenberg eBook of Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume VII slice IV - Coquelin to Costume.

In this study, we extend our work to include depressive patients. Using Natural Language Processing techniques, we extract verbal features, both dictionary-based and vector-based, from participants' interviews that were automatically transcribed. We also extracted conversational, phonatory, articulatory and prosodic features from the interviews to understand the conversational and acoustic characteristics of schizophrenia and depression.

Our analysis also revealed significant linguistic and non-verbal vocal-based differences that are potentially symptomatic of schizophrenia and depression respectively. Keywords: Physiological systems modeling - Signal processing in physiological systems , Signal pattern classification Abstract: Current research in the emotion recognition field is exploring the possibility of merging the information from physiological signals, behavioral data, and speech.

Electrodermal activity EDA is amongst the main psychophysiological arousal indicators. Nonetheless, it is quite difficult to be analyzed in ecological scenarios, like, for instance, when the subject is speaking. On the other hand, speech carries relevant information of subject emotional state and its potential in the field of affective computing is still to be fully exploited. In this work, we aim at exploring the possibility of merging the information from electrodermal activity EDA and speech to improve the recognition of human arousal level during the pronunciation of single affective words.

Unlike the majority of studies in the literature, we focus on speakers' arousal rather than the emotion conveyed by the spoken word. Specifically, a support vector machine with recursive feature elimination strategy SVM-RFE is trained and tested on three datasets, i. The six selected features by the RFE procedure will be used for the development of a future multivariate model of emotions. These are segmented into squiggle representations of the molecule. It has been suggested that applying dynamic time warp Barycentre Averaging DBA to multiple noisy squiggles can generate a lower noise, less-distorted, consensus signal that retains the key squiggle characteristics that would be distorted by other averaging approaches.

We discuss experimental results obtained when developing DBA consensus signals from squiggles produced by an Oxford MinION nano-sequencer squiggle convertor during an Enolase study. Metrics are proposed to identify differences between the known gold standard and consensus signals, and the level of self-consistency between consensus signals developed from noisy squiggles with different length distortions. A number of location-specific differences between the gold and consensus squiggles were identified.

Keywords: Bioinformatics - Bioinformatics for health monitoring , Bioinformatics - Computational modeling and simulations in biology, physiology and medicine , General and theoretical informatics - Algorithms Abstract: This paper develops a patient-specific model for the Debye parameters of human blood based on hemoglobin content.

Blood samples were collected from patients visiting the University Hospital, with both permittivity measurements and standard hematological analysis performed on each blood draw. The complete blood count of each sample provided information on the hemoglobin concentration of each sample; in total there were 73 distinct hemoglobin concentrations reported. An iterative process was used to find patient-specific, based on hemoglobin content, Debye parameters.

First, a two-stage genetic algorithm was used to solve for the parameters of a two-pole Debye model based on the mean-blood properties. Then, a modified two-pole Debye model incorporating hemoglobin information was developed, and those parameters were solved for using the same two-stage genetic algorithm. The patient-specific model has a mean-fractional error across all 73 samples of 3.

This work demonstrates the range in the dielectric properties of human blood samples and highlights the need for incorporating patient-specific information when using the Debye parameters to model the dielectric properties of human blood. Keywords: Bioinformatics - Integration of multi-modality omic data , Bioinformatics - High throughput —omic genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, lipidomics, and metagenomics data analytics for precision health , Bioinformatics - Computational systems biology Abstract: Recent advancement of omic technologies provides researchers with opportunities to search for disease biomarkers at the systems level.

However, selection of biomarker candidates from a large number of molecules involved at various layers of the biological system is challenging. In this paper, we propose multi-omic integrative analysis MOTA , a network-based method that uses information from multi-omic data to identify candidate disease biomarkers. We evaluated the performance of MOTA in selecting disease-associated molecules from four sets of multi-omic data representing three cohorts of hepatocellular carcinoma HCC cases and patients with liver cirrhosis.

The results demonstrate that MOTA leads to selection of more biomarker candidates that shared by two different cohorts compared to traditional statistical methods. Also, the networks constructed by MOTA allow users to investigate biological significance of the selected biomarker candidates. The introduction of the neuro-robotics field allows a mix of different disciplines to inter-collate and produce actual results that could be considered outputs of a science-fiction novel 20 twenty years ago.

In the present work, we attempt to present an example of how a robotic entity can move in an environment full of obstacles, by regulating its behavior so as to allow a decision based on rewards and penalties experiences. Examples of the robotic behavior, running on a virtual environment are presented, along with a discussion of its different possibilities expressed as a penalty function for the behavior of the robot.

Keywords: Bioinformatics - Gene expression pattern recognition , Bioinformatics - High throughput —omic genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, lipidomics, and metagenomics data analytics for precision health Abstract: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers with the second highest mortality rate in the world.

The microarray can be used to collect gene expression alteration information from many tissue samples that will be useful to understand colorectal cancer from the molecular level. However, the mechanism behind the progression from normal to cancer is not fully understood. Here, a cross-platform comparison among three common microarray platforms Affymetrix, Agilent, and Illumina was applied. As results, we found a significant correlation of purine metabolism and p53 signaling pathway role in colorectal cancer progression. Purine metabolism can control the regulation of cell proliferation which involve hydro-lyase activity on organelle lumen.

Meanwhile, genetic alterations in p53 signaling pathways could control some hallmarks of cancer. These two terms might play important roles in inducing normal colorectal cells into cancer. Keywords: General and theoretical informatics - Graph-theoretical applications , Bioinformatics - Bioinformatics databases , Imaging Informatics - Image rendering, reconstruction and enhancement Abstract: We construct a graph representation for the topology and geometry of the vasculature presenting across the whole mouse brain dataset: Knife-Edge Scanning Microscope Brain Atlas India Ink.

We use our graph representation to calculate preliminary estimates of the average radius as 2. We then isolate a posterior cerebral region, derive its graph representation, and then import that representation to a Neo4j graph database. We then detail how researchers can query this database online to isolate specific vascular networks for further analysis and reconstruction.

Keywords: Data-driven modeling , Models of organ physiology Abstract: We have created a model of systemic burn pathophysiology by incorporating a mathematical model of acute inflammation within the BioGears Engine. This model produces outputs consistent with burns of varying severities and leverages existing BioGears functionality to simulate the effect of treatment on virtual patient outcome. The model performs well for standard resuscitation scenarios and we thus expect it to be useful for educational and training purposes. Keywords: Data-driven modeling , Systems biology and systems medicine - Modeling of metabolic networks , Model building - Algorithms and techniques for systems modeling Abstract: Modelling of the gluco-regulatory system in response to an oral glucose tolerance test OGTT has been the subject of research for decades.